In my previous post, I discussed the importance of apps in our lives, how they are made, and why should you learn to make them. I mentioned that the apps are made up using various kinds of Programming Languages, and in this post, I will show you the key differences between some of the most popular Programming Languages, which will help you compare between different languages you would want to start learning for initiating your career in the cyber world.
Let's get started!
Kotlin is developed by JetBrains and is based on the Java Virtual Machine. This language provides an easier syntax than Java but can be anywhere where Java can. Kotlin is open source and boasts its concise syntax and Java compatibility. Google too is promoting the usage of Kotlin for developing Android apps and it has been gaining a large and active community worldwide. Unlike Java, Kotlin is well supported for developing iOS apps and is used many many developers. As it can use Java libraries without any issues, it can do whatever Java can but even more!
C is often referred to as the mother of all programming languages because it is one of the most popular programming languages and various other languages are written in C or its successors and many other languages follow a syntax resembling C's. Most of the compilers and kernels are written in C today.
" Every language uses C language in variable capacity. For example, Python uses C for creating standard libraries, whereas the syntaxes and control structures of languages like C++, PHP, and Perl are based on C. "
- IIT Kanpur (https://ict.iitk.ac.in/c-the-mother-of-all-languages/)
The same article also mentions that C is portable, and you can use the same source code with slight modifications to run on many other platforms. C also provides much better performance, for example, if you run a Python and a C program that do the same thing, C would finish the task in a lesser time than Python and is much preferred in applications with time sensitivity, like autopilot for cars. This is a reason why companies like Tesla are hiring C/C++ programmers for building AI instead of Python devs.
It seems that the position of the C language has been affected because of the growing popularity of programming languages like Java and C++. The major reason behind this is that all the syntaxes and features of the C language have been inherited by C++. The only difference between the two is that C++ has implemented an advanced programming paradigm that is popularly known as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Due to this new programming paradigm, it is sometimes called "C with classes" because classes are the main components of Object-Oriented programming. OOP is considered to be an important property of any programming language and it is a reason why C++ is more widely used in newer applications instead of C. C++ is also widely preferred for creating games and some of the most popular games like GTA, Cyberpunk, Fortnite, etc are made using C++.
Swift is another general-purpose programming language that is developed and maintained by Apple Inc. and the open-source community and was first released in 2014. Swift was developed as a replacement for Apple's earlier programming language Objective-C, as Objective-C had been largely unchanged since the early 1980s and lacked modern language features. Since then, Swift has been considered the primary software development language for developing apps for iOS and other Apple operating systems. Swift is a mixture of popular components from Objective-C and has a syntax that is quite similar to Python. This has led to a sharp increase in the popularity of the language as it surpassed Objective-C in early 2018, within just 4 years. Its easy syntax is another feature why it is also a preferred language to be taught to beginners.
Our list is always incomplete without the king of the web - PHP! PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. Although this language is slowly losing popularity, a large percentage of the web relies on it including the largest social media platform Facebook. According to researches, PHP is used by 79.2% of all the websites whose server-side programming language was known. PHP code is usually processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter, but can also be used to develop graphical applications and more. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform.
Here's a small table that compares the languages listed above based on various aspects like ease of learning and compatible platforms:
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